Researchers also observed the quality of relationships between calves and caretakers through an avoidance distance test. The test, which measures the distance at which a calf will avoid a person who approaches it head on, revealed the stroked calves had a lower avoidance distance than the calves in the control group. In short, the calves who had been given special attention early on in their lives were less fearful and more welcoming when approached by people. … [Read more...] about Study: Cows Grow Bigger, Give More Milk After Early Positive Human Interaction
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In the era of smart phones with GPS and Google Maps, you're probably already familiar with the system of geographic coordinates that's commonly used to describe locations on the Earth's spherical surface. That system is based on latitude, the distance north or south from the Earth's equator, and longitude, which is the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian, an imaginary line that runs north to south through Greenwich, England. The distances are measured in degrees — 90 degrees in each direction for latitude, and 180 in each direction for longitude — and minutes, seconds and fractions of a second. (For more on how that system works, check out these pages from the U.S. Geological Survey and the IBM Knowledge Center.) … [Read more...] about How Do We Find Things in the Blackness of Space?